Practically all people suffer from various manifestations of allergic reactions today. Newborn babies from the first days of life, as well as pregnant women are no exception. Allergy symptoms give the sick a lot of unpleasant feelings, from which I want to get rid of as soon as possible. That is why many people are forced to take various antihistamines, good, in pharmacies today there are a lot of them.
How do they differ and how to choose the most effective drugs with the minimum number of side effects?
How do allergy medications work?
When any allergen enters the human body, the production of certain biologically active substances aimed at combating it is instantly enhanced. As a result of their actions and there are multiple manifestations of an allergic reaction, for example, rashes, itching, tearing, sneezing and much more.
The most active of these substances is histamine. This biogenic compound is contained in the body of each person, however, before meeting with the allergen, it is inactive and does not manifest itself. Most antiallergic drugs not only reduce the production of histamine, but also suppress those biologically active substances that have already begun to act.
Since medicine and pharmaceuticals are not standing still, the composition of allergy preparations is constantly being improved, with the result that higher efficacy and a reduction in the number of side effects are achieved. So, the most modern tools are called anti-allergic drugs of a new generation. As a rule, they are much more expensive than their predecessors, but can alleviate the suffering of the patient in the shortest possible time.
Classification of antiallergic drugs by generations
To date, there are four generations of antihistamines. Let us dwell on each of them:
- Antiallergic drugs of the first generation were discovered in 1936 and still continue to be used. They effectively deal with various manifestations of allergy, but their action is too short, so these funds have to be taken too often. In addition, they have a strong hypnotic effect and significantly reduce performance. In the case of regular intake of this kind of medication, addiction quickly develops, so the money must be changed every 2-3 weeks. Finally, the first generation antiallergic drugs have many contraindications and a lot of side effects;
- Second-generation antihistamines have several advantages over their predecessors. They practically do not cause drowsiness and can be used even by those people whose work requires increased attention. In addition, they are not addictive, and their action lasts about 24 hours, which allows you to take only one tablet per day. Meanwhile, with regular use of such drugs it is necessary to carefully monitor the state of the cardiovascular system, since they can provoke various diseases;
- The modern third-generation allergy drugs, once in the human body, are converted from their original form into metabolites of second-generation drugs. By and large, they have a stronger effect than their predecessors, but do not create side effects and can be safely used in the treatment of people suffering from various diseases of the heart and blood vessels;
- Finally, antiallergic drugs of the new generation, or fourth. Drugs in this group act selectively, that is, they exclusively block type 1 receptors. Since these drugs do not affect type 2 and 3 receptors, they quickly relieve a person from allergy symptoms, but do not cause drowsiness and addiction and have a minimal amount of side effects and contraindications.
New generation drugs
The active substances that make up these drugs, only 3 - is fexofenadine, levocetirizin and desloratadine. Pharmaceutical companies combine antihistamine derivatives with various excipients, thus obtaining a wide range of allergy drugs:-
- Desloratadine is included in such drugs as Lordestin, Allergostop or Erius. It takes effect half an hour after ingestion, and its effect lasts up to 24 hours. Available in the form of syrup for kids older than a year and tablets for children from 12 years of age and adults;
- Levocetirizine has such trade names as Cesera, Suprastix and Glentset. In most cases, begins to act within 10-15 minutes after administration. One pill is usually enough to completely get rid of the unpleasant symptoms of allergy on the day;
- Fexofenadine can be purchased as medicines such as Telfast, Fexofast, or Fexadine. It is applied once a day, does not affect the central nervous system and has practically no contraindications.
Indications and contraindications to the use of antihistamines
Most often, these drugs are used in the following pathologies:
- allergic rhinitis;
- allergic conjunctivitis;
Virtually all antiallergic drugs of the new generation are contraindicated in pregnancy and lactation, as well as in the case of individual intolerance to the components. In addition, Fexofenadine and Levocetirizine are not used in children under 6 years of age. Desloratadine allowed for use by children from 1 year.
Antiallergic drugs for pregnant women
Unfortunately, pregnant women are incredibly susceptible to allergies. Meanwhile, most antihistamines cannot be applied while the child is waiting. The first trimester of pregnancy is an absolute contraindication for all antiallergic drugs, including the new generation. In the 2nd and 3rd trimester, any medication can be used only under the supervision of a physician and only when the expected benefit is higher than the risk of complications in the baby. Most often during pregnancy, preference is given to drugs containing Levocetirizine, since they are as safe as possible for the fetus.
What can be given to children?
None of the modern antihistamine drugs can not be used for crumbs up to a year. Since birth babies can be given with special care only some first generation means. Children older than one year more often than others are prescribed drugs Erius or Desal as a syrup.
What medicines cause drowsiness?
In connection with the selective (selective) mechanism of action, absolutely all anti-allergic drugs of the new generation do not cause drowsiness and can be used even for those people whose activities are connected with the need for increased attention and concentration.