Not the last place in the list of diseases of the oral cavity is a geographic language. The causes of its occurrence and the methods of treatment have not been fully studied by physicians. Such a pathology can easily occur in both an adult and a child. Let's try to figure out what this unusual disease is and why it occurs.
Geographical language: symptoms and localization of the disease
Symptoms of the disease are expressed in the appearance of whitish-gray or scarlet opacities on the epithelium of the tongue. Most often there are several foci of inflammation, and they are localized on the side or tip of the tongue. The zone of inflammation can be of different shapes and sizes, sometimes the geographic language manifests itself in the form of rings or half-rings. If the infection has penetrated the soft tissue, then characteristic cracks can appear on the tongue.
Let's see what the geographic language looks like in the photo:
- the language of a healthy person;
- geographic language;
- geographic language with cracks.
The affected areas of the tongue when viewed resemble a geographical map, hence the name of the disease.
The disease may be accompanied by the following manifestations:
- burning of the tongue;
- violation of taste sensations;
- a sense of magnification and softness of the tongue;
- difficult conversation;
- discomfort when swallowing and chewing food.
Children and some adults may not observe any pain and discomfort at all, and the disease may go away for an indefinite period and then reappear.
Causes and treatment of pathology
To establish the specific causes of the emergence and development of this disease, doctors can not. It is considered that most often the geographic language appears due to insufficient supply of the mucous membrane of the oral cavity with microelements. Possible causes of the emergence of a geographic language are the following diseases:
- chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract;
- defects of the dentition and injury to the oral cavity;
- malfunction of the nervous system;
- pathology of the liver, thyroid gland;
- malfunction of the circulatory system;
- poor or inadequate oral hygiene.
Geographic language can occur in people who have been taking antibiotics and other potent drugs for a long time, as well as in adolescent maturation in children and women during the menstrual cycle or pregnancy.
If a geographic tongue appears in a child, the reason for this may be a worm infestation or physiological changes in the body, such as teething. The doctor may prescribe additional general blood tests, feces and urine, as well as other necessary laboratory tests to prevent possible errors in the diagnosis.
Geographic language should be distinguished from the possible symptoms of other diseases, such as:
- secondary syphilis;
- lupus erythematosus;
- hypovitaminosis group B;
- effects of radiation therapy;
- candidiasis and leukoplakia.
Treatment of the causes of cracks in the tongue and other defects is mainly aimed at eliminating the main diseases of the body.
If the occurrence of a geographic language is accompanied by pain, the doctor may prescribe the following measures:
- full reorganization (elimination of plaque and tartar) and oral hygiene;
- elimination of irritating factors;
- the use of dental elixirs for rinsing the mouth, baths with the use of antibacterial drugs and herbal infusions;
- with the appearance of severe pain, local anesthetics are prescribed.
In the absence of any complaints, treatment is not carried out at all.
All the above treatment methods are prophylactic in nature. None of the qualified specialists gives a 100% guarantee of the complete disappearance of the effect of a geographic language, because there is a high probability of a relapse, especially in the elderly.
Necessary preventive measures
Prevention is one of the main ways to prevent the occurrence of a geographic language. Its main goal is to remove germs and microorganisms from the affected areas and help the oral mucosa recover.
Careful oral hygiene is the main criterion for preventive measures:
- choose a gentle toothpaste and mouthwash without sodium lauryl sulfate;
- ordinary mouth elixirs can also be replaced by infusions of herbs chamomile, sage and oak bark;
- to prevent the development of harmful bacteria and microorganisms in the oral cavity, after each meal, clean the interdental space with a dental floss;
- It is useful to replace the old toothbrush with a new one with softer bristles.
To prevent the occurrence of a geographic language, due attention should be paid to proper diet. It is also extremely undesirable to consume alcoholic beverages, spicy seasonings and marinades, it is recommended to exclude too hot food. To normalize and improve digestion, it is worthwhile to include in the diet dairy products, for example, yoghurts, clabber, sour cream. Good warm herbal teas and non-carbonated drinks.
Finally, I would like to note that you should not try to cure the geographic language on your own, but you should consult a doctor and undergo a full examination. Only by removing the root cause of this disease, you can be sure that you have gotten rid of the problem.